Polyurethane formulation guide

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Key Benefits Offered by Dispersions Based on TMXDI. (Secure tiles with nails or screws as well. Formulating Guidelines for Hauthane Polyurethane Dispersions. What are the application differences of a Polyurethane dispersion coating compared to a solvent based polyurethane and what are the advantages upon each other? A polyurethane coating is a versatile product with many advantages upon other coating systems. The polyurethane foam world is very large and diverse – chances are good you are sitting on some kind of flexible polyurethane foam right now – but the useful products for composite-core applications are rigid foams. Polyurethane is applied as topcoat for flooring in order to protect the wood from scratches, scuffs and other types of abrasions. NeoRez® R-2180 35 50 7,3 Aliphatic, self crosslinking polyurethane dispersion Suitable for low VOC formulations. Polyuret ne Amine C. Non-yellowing, good clarity. High versatile polyisocyanate used for the formulation of polyurethane sealers and topcoats. PU is very versatile and can be manufactured in various forms - to be hard Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. O. « Previous Thread to use any product, process, equipment or formulation in conflict with any patent, and ICL makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, that the use thereof will not infringe any patent. The selection of the proper silicone stabilizer depends on the chemical formulation (polyols, isocyanates, blowing agents, etc. In addition, these waterborne polyurethane coatings show accelerated weathering results that are the equal of standard solventborne polyurethane coatings. Their main physical properties can be adjusted over a wide range according to the application's demands. • The ability to use both polyols and amines greatly increases formulating flexibility. String time, s, 44. Depending on the material formulation, the grout/water combination forms either an expansive closed cell foam or a gel. Sovermol® 805 Base polyol 39,0 2. The discrete polymer particles are forced together to form a continuous film as the water evaporates. The use of UV absorbers and hindered amine stabilizers protects polyurethane from UV light-induced oxidation. Polyurethane: An Introduction 7 or aromatic). o Structural building elements. Special finishes may be incorporated in the polyurethane to create an ink and denim resistant surface. Trade name Function parts Component A 1. Exterior polyurethane contains polyurethane resin, a flatting agent that reduces the gloss, ultraviolet absorber and solvent. Diethyltoluenediamine is used extensively in RIM, and in polyurethane and polyurea elastomer formulations. Varnish Guide 01 Technical Service Helpline: 1 800 468-7589 yachtpaint. Our extensive range of high-performance polyurethane raw materials offer solutions for flexible, rigid and integral skin foams – with properties tailored to meet your specific needs. 3-1. This selection guide will enable you to select the right light/UV Stabilizer for aromatic & aliphatic TPU, Polyurethane Reaction Injection Molded Foam, Polyurethane fibers and adhesives & sealants. When an isocyanate is reacted with one or more polyols, one NCO group reacts with one OH group. However, formulating skill is required to obtain optimum properties from SYNTEGRA polyurethane dispersions. These groups, called urethane, are produced through a chemical reaction between a diisocyanate and a polyol. This feature allows the design of polyurethane coating systems to meet specific end-use requirements. It is messy and sticky to use and always seems to get on everything. Coating wood cabinetry, furniture, or trim with a clear finish, whether you stain it or not, gives it richness and depth while protecting it from knocks, scrapes, and the weather. Color packs are available for selected colors. - What is a polyurethane composite? - Why PU composites? Jan 12, 2010 · Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. It will also acquaint you with 58 Series Polyurethane Topcoat Page 2 of 5 AkzoNobel Aerospace Coatings 1 East Water Street, Waukegan, IL 60085, USA - Phone (847) 623 4200, Fax (847) 625 3200 Polyurethane and solvent-based adhesives are used to provide strong and durable bonds in a number of technical applications. It includes a survey of modern adhesives and shows how joints should be designed and pre-treated in order to make best use of adhesive bonding. 19 Oct 2010 POLYURETHANE FOAM SYSTEMS . Formerly branded as Robnor Resins, our company became Robnor ResinLab last year after forming a strategic partnership with US resin manufacturer ResinLab. Loxon™ Polyurethane Sealants have many features, including resistance to extreme weather conditions like wind-driven rain and Polyurethane adhesives are those glues that are made of urethane polymers with chemical based of isocyanate group, polyurethane adhesives are also known as elastic adhesives, due they have an extraordinary elasticity and elongation before the fracture occurs (up to 600%), and also like epoxy adhesives exist rigid polyurethane adhesives, due to the high fracture resistance presented by these adhesives about 25 MPa. Use this guide to learn more about choosing and using polyurethane, the toughest of the clear coatings. • Formulators and applicators with knowledge of Maxemul 7101/7201 Direct-to-Metal Formulation Using Maxemul Based Alkyd Emulsion. Water-based paint formulations. production schedule that allows for shipping most orders within 48 hours. All the components used in a specific formulation for a polyurethane elastomer can be  Starting Formulations. The standard 180° peel adhesion test based on ASTM C-794 specification measures the wet and dry adhesion properties of an elastomeric roof coating formulation. Color pack mix ratio is 1 quart pigment per 5 gallons resin. The Anzea Too Close to Call collection is a hybrid of the polyurethane family. Polyurethane hot melt, commonly called PUR hot melt, is an adhesive that is heated and dispensed from a cartridge or slug using a heated glue gun or piece of bulk dispensing equipment. TRISODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINE. Formulating Sealants using VORAPEL Hydrophobic Polyols Polyurethane sealants are well established in Industrial and Infrastructure markets due to their flexibility, mechanical properties, paintability, resistance to standing water, and good adhesion to a variety of substrates. Rubber is added to the formulation to ensure the adhesive has elasticity to further reinforce its water resistance in extreme temperatures. Alesta® Technical Guide. Innovative Polymers. The chemical resistances listed below should always be checked with manufacturing data. Increasing General Guidelines For Formulating PEDOT/PSS. Unlike rubber, most automotive polyurethane formulations are UV-stable and chemical-resistant, so road grime, particularly salt, doesn’t cause them to decay. Aug 18, 2019 · Lacquer vs. Quality Polyaspartic Waterproof Coating manufacturers & exporter - buy Polyaspartic Elastic Topcoat PS9581L Guide Formulation from China manufacturer. The guide comes from the inventors of adhesives capable of bonding metals. NMP Free Polyurethane Dispersions. . US Europe High Performance Low VOC 2K Solvent-Based Urethane Primer using HALOX® SZP-391 DESMOPHEN A 870 BA. polyurethane resin systems. ® DMPA Polyol HA-0135 TECHNICAL BULLETIN #2 DMPA Polyol HA-0135 in Solvent Free Polyurethane Dispersions Guide Formulation Technical Data Typical Properties Appearance Clear / lightly hazy viscous liquid Formulation Guidelines. Polyurethane stands up to a broad range of environmental factors, including moisture, radiation, sunlight, and heat. Renewable materials in polyurethane foam, %, up to 29. com • The lines between polyurethane and polyurea are becoming blurred. Sample Calculations for Polyurethane Formulations: If the formulation uses 95. A list of the many advantages of polyurethane polymers to be brought to CASE applications, without these conventional handling concerns. Incorez Oxazolidines are versatile additives for 1K and 2K solvent borne and high solids polyurethane systems. h. 0. The properties of PU also depend upon the degree of cross-linking as well as molecular weight of the starting PEP. Guide to Professionally Installing High-Pressure, Two-Component Spray Polyurethane Foam Insulation This checklist provides professional contractors and clients, including homeowners and other building occupants, a set of topics to discuss so that the client understands what to expect when a professional contractor installs high-pressure, two Eastman TXIB Formulation Additive is the lowest viscosity additive available to the flexible PVC industry, making this material particularly suitable for PVC plastisols and often allows adding additional fillers to the plastisol, resulting in a cost savings. Aug 19, 2019 · A guide to sheep feed formulation and ingredients Hey, are you a lamb or sheep lover? would like raise the sheep on your own and don’t know what to feed your sheep? here is the information about sheep feed formulation. The precise formulations are known to the polyurethane processors but this information is sometimes proprietary and is Home > Forum > Optimized formulations > NCO/OH ration calculation. Epoxy resins are generally combined with curing agents, modifiers and other additives into formulated coatings, adhesives, compounds or mixtures which deliver the needed performance for a specific end use or application. Zinc carbonates such as carbonic acid zinc salt, zinc carbonate hydroxide monohydrate, zinc bicarbonate, zinc tetraamine carbonate, zinc ammonium carbonate, carbamic acid zinc salt and zinc carbamate can initiate hardening of polyurethane coatings and decrease the coating tack-free time. When the number of NCO groups is equal is to the number of OH groups, the result is a stoichioetric NCO : OH ratio of 1. 3. First developed in 1937, this versatile polymer is soft and processable when heated, hard when Formulation of polyurethane coatings. Reaction Injection Molding not only offers significant advantages over injection molding, but also vacuum-forming, pressure-forming, and cast molding. Jeff Anderson for formulation guidance; and Chris Rainey, Chris Peters, and Ben  18 Oct 2019 The goal is to offer customers tailor-made polyurethane systems with LANXESS enlarged its database of prepolymer-based formulations. POLYURETHANE-59, BUTYLENE. ) of the foam system, the manufacturing process (spray, pour, etc. Good hardness/toughness balance. Used on roofs and terraces where a medium pedestrian traffic is expected. 3 Key Areas to Consider When Creating Custom Urethane Formulations. This guide has been produced by James Walker to provide engineers with a reference source to a wide range of essential information on elastomers and their applications. Polyurethane has an inherent high level of stain resistance and resistance to harsh chemicals. Our flexible urethanes are generally more abrasion resistant than silicone rubber, making them Polyurethane Because polyurethane is a clear finish, it can bring out the beauty of wood. 70 The basic polyurethane chemicals division of BASF in North America is a major supplier of aromatic isocyanates (MDI, TDI) and polyols used by manufacturers of polyurethane products for CASE applications, flexible foam, engineered wood products, rigid polyisocyanurate boards and foam insulation. Film Formation. When designing a custom urethane part or product, there are countless formulation choices that will affect performance. olmo-group. In trying to understand how a varnish works, it is useful to review the various components necessary to create a typical varnish. First, from the left-hand column, select the delivery system and resin you plan to use. Like all polymers, its performance comes from its molecular make-up. 6. First developed in late 1930s, polyurethanes are some of the most versatile polymers. Practical Guide to Flexible Polyurethane Foams  the formulation and processing has made this possible for polyiso foam and experimentation with vegetable oil based polyols in polyurethane formulations. In general, the best defoaming properties are achieved at dosages of 0. Jun 01, 2000 · For example, a simple, two-component polyurethane formulation based on Poly bd R-45HTLO resin cured with a polymeric MDI (diphenylmethane diisocyanate) will have less than 0. K-FLEX XM-3371 is a light stable high Tg polyester polyol that is recommended as a modifying resin for isocyanate crosslinked coating systems. Polyurethane is also used for moldings which include door frames, columns, balusters, window headers, pediments, medallions and rosettes. 1 Conventional Foam(Density Range 16. guide formulations skin care hair care new trends make up formulated with adeka nol gt-730 polyurethane-59, butylene glycol, aqua 3. In life science applications, the soft segments are typically formed from polyester, polyether, or polycarbonate diols with low glass transition temperatures. Hauthaway Established 1852. ^ "A Guide To Glycols". BYK-025 is a pretty compatible but nevertheless effective defoamer for water-borne wood coatings which are applied via curtain coater. Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. leader in the development of polyurethanes and has held that role since its founding more than two decades ago. What are typical food contact applications for polyurethane? Polyurethanes are used in a variety of food contact applications including, but not LUbrizoL PoLyUrEThAnE DiSPErSionS Products listed in red font are considered ‘nMP-free’ meaning they have no n-methyl pyrrolidone intentionally used in the formulation, but trace amounts may be detectable from common Nov 21, 2018 · Development of Fire Resistant Polyurethane Products: Strassbourg, France: PU-36 : 8 Oct 2018: PU Formulation Development & Optimization: Strassbourg, France: PU-35 : Europe Polyurethane Training Week 2017 (1st Edition) 25 Oct 2017: Development of Fire Resistant Polyurethane Products : Amsterdam, Netherlands: PU-34 : 24 Oct 2017: PU Formulation Formulating Fundamentals for Coatings and Cleaners Summary Solvents are essential formula-tion ingredients for many coating and cleaning jobs. Chelating. TECHNICAL BULLETIN #1. Guidance 1. Innovative Polymers is recognized as a . The aim is to bring together in one place the core information on elastomer engineering that might otherwise be time-consuming to obtain. Chain Extension Parameters. This technical tip is a general guide to aid formulators in selecting Eastman plasticizers or Eastman TXIB Formulation Additive is the lowest viscosity additive available to the flexible PVC industry, making this material particularly suitable for PVC plastisols and often allows adding additional fillers to the plastisol, resulting in a cost savings. Formulation Guideline Matrix Surface Resistivity of Baytron / Polyurethane-Dispersion. The catalyst for the reaction can be a tertiary amine like dimethylcyclohexylamine or organic metallic materials like dibutyltin dilaturate. 0-32 kg/m3) 78 Practical GuidetoFlexible PolyurethaneFoams 8. Niax additives for flexible polyurethane foam feature open and fine cells, highly effective fire retardancy, improved density distribution and low volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. 805/09 Guide Formulation 805/09 Page 1 of 3 Market Segment Resins Coating type Self leveling 2-pack polyurethane flooring compound Binder components Sovermol 805® & Sovermol 1092® - Polymer MDI 31% NCO-content Pos. 117-00991- 92Hyc. Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate . 1. Type S 1136-71 Type N 1136-72 Metric 36. 4 Posts The DISPUREZ range of pyrrolidone-free, waterborne polyurethane dispersions is designed to facilitate the formulation of high performance coatings for flexible films and rigid plastics Maxemul 7101/7201 Direct-to-Metal Formulation Using Maxemul Based Alkyd Emulsion. 3M™ Polyurethane Multi-Purpose Adhesive 5010 (PDF, 33. Selecting Plasticizers for Adhesives and Sealants Formulation Hands-on Formulation Guide for Today’s Needs Maximizing Moisture Resistance in Structural This guide has been produced by James Walker to provide engineers with a reference source to a wide range of essential information on elastomers and their applications. Sunday, 24 November 2019 . ElEmENts OF thE CasE FORmUlatION appROaCh tO CBt Smart covers for the iPad mini and the iPad are available in both leather and polyurethane. 3 and 8. ) and the desired foam Low modulus Polyurethane sealant used to seal joints and cracks. 0 501 Commercial Flame Retardant for the Polyurethane Construction Market SaFRon™ 6605. In the U. Axalta Coating Systems. DISUCCINATE. Formulations By Resin Acrylic Alkyd Elastomeric Epoxy Epoxy Ester Hybrid Phenoxy Polyester Melamine Polyester TGIC Polyurethane Polyurethane Dispersion (PUD) Polyvinyl Butyral Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) Silicone Thermoplastic Acrylics (TPA) Apr 06, 2017 · The formulation for preparing a polyurethane foam of the present invention comprises (a) a polyol composition, which comprises at least two different polyoxypropylene polyols. Opportunities abound in China's market for polyurethane Western Europe's car makers sales were flat in May Lower emissions with new auto formulation Get yourself Polyurethane (PUR or PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate or urethane links. However, choosing the appropriate solvent or solvent blend for a particular application is often not easy. Polyurethane topcoats are commonly used in the construction industry over functional floor coatings or as sealers for concrete. 4) Flick, Ernest W. The new edition of the book is covering latest methods including Introduction, Historical Development of Adhesives and Adhesive Bonding, Types of Adhesives, Emulsion and Dispersion Adhesives, Testing of Adhesives, Jan 02, 2015 · Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-2939 Printed in the United States ISBN 0-8155-1415-8 Published in the United States of America by Noyes Publications 369 Fairview Avenue Westwood, New Jersey 07675 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data (Revised for vol. NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE Polyurethane Adhesives and Sealants Based on Hydrophobic Polyols Adam Colson Amber Stephenson Nita Xu Wenwen Li Bindu Krishnan The Dow Chemical Company 2301 N. France, Poland and Sweden are considering implementing a similar form of HFC tax. Based on aliphatic polyurethane technology, MicroTouch additives are micron-sized elastic particles that distort when disturbed by polyesters, polyethers, and acrylics for use in the formulation of polyurethane coatings. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. S. It bridges the performance gap between rubber and plastic. Table 1 offers additive suggestions for use in a variety of delivery systems and resins. Guide formulations 8. , w/o Water PEL-CAT 9858-A amino-acid x 15500 1. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. 6 thickener, emulsion Choosing the correct release agent (and applying it correctly) is important to avoid tackiness and surface defects. 6 thickener, emulsion In addition, most problem foam installations using any given product have been preceded by a large number of successful installations using the same product. During the 1950’s we pioneered the benefits of urethane chemistry producing novel silicone Today though, water based polyurethane has evolved with better formulations that are equally durable as oil based polyurethane. Unlike alkyd or melamine-cured systems, polyurethane coatings are based upon a well-defined stoichiometry. Polyurethane (PUR or PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate or urethane links. They last longer and cost less than the competition, and most orders ship the next day. This helps the product form a uniform protective film over the substrate. One- and two-component sealants formulated Oct 01, 2008 · The QUV A weathering performance of polyurethane topcoats can vary depending on the choice of raw materials. Terate® HT 5349 polyol is suitable of using either HFC-245fa or HCFO-1233zd as blowing agents. 1 to 5. It will also acquaint you with Creative Material Technologies, ltd is the leader in polyaspartic floor coatings including an innovative polyaspartic floor coating that is 100% solids, contains no solvents, and zero VOC's. Oil based poly can last around 10 years. context for the exploratory formulation work and guide the development of. Excellent chemical, black heel mark and scuff resistance. We hope to help you meet the growing challenges in today’s industry through this guide, and we are eager to support you through our collaborative approach to problem How do I make an open cell rigid Polyurethane foam having 18pcf density? Trying to exploit Open cell polyurethane rigid foam, density around 18pcf. Typical 2-Pound Density Spray Formulation For Wall Insulation. This formulation. Add part B to mixture at room temperature. Specific test results or additional testing can be acquired upon request. Jun 01, 2000 · Finished Adhesives and Sealants Raw Materials and Chemicals Asphalt-Modified Polyurethanes Show Advantages in Construction Sealants Poly bd resins are used in adhesives, sealants, castable elastomers, caulks, membranes, foams, coatings, propellant binders, potting and encapsulating compounds, as well as other rubber-fabricated materials. Guide Formulation ED No. Let's Start with the PUR Hot Melt Basics If you're a PUR hot melt connoisseur, sorry to bore you but we're going to start simply. * Also available in 3000 lb. Our flexible urethanes are generally more abrasion resistant than silicone rubber, making them What are the application differences of a Polyurethane dispersion coating compared to a solvent based polyurethane and what are the advantages upon each other? A polyurethane coating is a versatile product with many advantages upon other coating systems. The following guidelines are based on Hauthaway’s experience in formulating coatings using our Hauthane polyurethane dispersions. e. Superior Adhesion to Polyurethane Foam Formulations based on RHOPLEX EC-2885 acrylic exhibit su perior adhesion to polyurethane foam. Depending on the formulation, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers can also have excellent resistance to oils, fuels, solvents and chemicals. It gives the right balance between fast drying and long pot-life. presented as a rough guide 1. This guide is intended primarily for those coatings chemists who are not experienced with the use of DE. This polyaspartic formulation can be applied where other polyaspartic non-VOC compliant products are restricted. They either waste their time or choose an outdated solution which will not give the best result! Let us guide you to updated strategies: Formulation S-50-HL page 12 surgery and other medical applications 66 Clear 165 (74) Tygon® Microbore Tubing Formulation S-54-HL page 12 For precision injection and dispensing 80 Clear 185 (85) Tygon® High Purity Tubing Provides a high level of purity not Formulation 2275 page 13 previously available in a clear, flexible tubing 72 Clear 125 (52) Dec 25, 2014 · The book Adhesive Technology and Formulations Hand Book covers almost all the basic and advanced details to setup own Gums and Adhesive Unit. In response to the need for ambient temperature curing coatings with low solvent emission levels, Bayer has developed two-component waterborne polyurethane coatings with properties Polyurethane formulations cover an extremely wide range of stiffness, hardness, and densities. POLYURETHANES. bag 80 lb. 72 Aromatic Polyisocyanate 61% in MPA/Xylene [2] Desmodur E14 4. 4 are for 1 C and 2 C PUR sealants. Note that polyurethane is not a uniform class of material. Urethane elastomer coatings are useful for protecting surfaces where the properties of elastomeric polyurethane are desired, such as abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, tear strength, resistance to moisture and temperature compatibility. SeraShine® EM 121 is an excellent conditioner, which also smoothes and repairs damage. 21. Flexible Polyurethane Methyl Methacrylate (PUMMA) Product #6890 is a 100% reactive methyl methacrylate polyurethane hybrid resin. VORAMER™ MN 2314 Prepolymer for Sealant Applications VORAMER MN 2314 is a partially formulated polyurethane prepolymer suitable for use in one-component sealant formulations, particularly for low The Complete Guide to Polyurethane PUR Hot Melt Adhesives Polyurethane hot melts  are being used more and more in industries from high volume manufacturing to DIY and home repair. Particular attention is given to formulation The book Adhesive Technology and Formulations Hand Book covers almost all the basic and advanced details to setup own Gums and Adhesive Unit. Mix part A with gentle stirring at room temperature. de Our product specifications, application information and any other information in this document is based on our current state of knowledge at the Revision Date mentioned above. It bonds to wood, metal, and most plastics. This formulating guide is designed to help a formulator get started using polyurethane dispersions, and successfully DOWNLOAD Solvent Based 2K Polyurethane DTM using HALOX® 700 DESMOPHEN 670 A-80. 20% when immersed two hours in boiling water, and will exhibit a Water Vapor Permeance of 0. Millathane 97 shows an improvement in low temperature flexibility and wet traction compared to previous grades of clear polyurethane rubber. The new edition of the book is covering latest methods including Introduction, Historical Development of Adhesives and Adhesive Bonding, containing formulations was recently introduced (2014). Polyurethane bushings can function like a synthetic hip replacement, providing a compliant, long-lasting buffer between hard parts. A portion a portion of the red color's proceeds will be donated to Product Red, a for-profit company that in turn The formed polyurethane bonds have high chemical resistances against many environmental conditions. Polyurethane Polyurethanes are linear polymers that have a molecular backbone containing carbamate groups (-NHCO2). co. • There are many new amines available, especially secondaries, that can be used in PU formulations. Polyurethane Amine Catalysts: Safe Handling Guidelines. Depending on the chemistry formulation and the reaction process, polyurethane’s end-state performance is tailorable to meet exactly what you need. A. They provide solid protection for painted surfaces, as long as the paint is clean and has had time polyurethane coatings and paints formulations encyclopedia e - textbooks EPOXY COATINGS & PAINTS FORMULATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA TEXTBOOKS CONSTRUCTION CHEMICALS FORMULATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA - 2 E - TEXTBOOKS BYK Additives & Instruments. Jan 02, 2015 · Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-2939 Printed in the United States ISBN 0-8155-1415-8 Published in the United States of America by Noyes Publications 369 Fairview Avenue Westwood, New Jersey 07675 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data (Revised for vol. services, from product recommendations and formulation guidelines to assistance in producing and applying coatings with. Acetone or lacquer thinner can be used to clean tools while still uncured. Without them, paints and cleaning products would simply not perform as well. A popular choice for cabinets and trim, it also protects wood. royalelastomers. This guide sets out to remove the reservations that engineers sometimes have about adhesives. Robnor ResinLab is a supplier of epoxy and polyurethane resin systems including adhesives, encapsulants and conformal coatings. GUIDING FORMULATION Moisture Curing Polyurethane Primer – Red Oxide Weight [1] Desmodur E1361 27. • Also available in Type “N” and “M” formulations Meets the requirements of ASTM C 270 & C 1714 * Contact your local representative for exact color availability. Initially, a petroleum-based polyol with functionality of 4. It may also be a useful educational solids and NMP free polyurethane dispersions. VINNOL® resins. Sealants based on polysiloxanes, polyurethanes or polyacrylates steadily have been . Water based poly can have the same longevity. also maintains a flexible . How to Use This Guide This guide will help you explore the properties and performance capabilities of Dow Corning’s global line of additives for paints, inks and coatings. Depending on the reactive polyol and the structure of the diisocyanate, polyurethanes can provide excellent abrasion resistance, superb elasticity, and high hardness. POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS A complete line of easy to use, economical tooling and prototyping resins, these materials are widely used in many applications that demand the ideal balance between price and performance. DMPA® Polyol HA-0135LV2. Ultra-Soft for Comfort. Formulation for 2 pcf Spray Rigid Polyurethane coatings. For further details please contact my email with your complete details of requirements. Acrylic Flat Formulation; Aluminum Asphalt Roof Coating; Asphalt Roof Coating The class then discusses next steps, students reflect on the process of question formulation and what they learned ‘just’ by asking questions about the primary source, and then begin to use their questions in different ways (e. Note - All information described on 1 component polyurethane adhesives moisture curing are referenced to the basic principles. US Europe High Gloss DTM 2K Acrylic Polyurethane based on DESMOPHEN A 870 BA using HALOX® 430 JM Paraloid Edge 1100 Apr 06, 2017 · The formulation for preparing a polyurethane foam of the present invention comprises (a) a polyol composition, which comprises at least two different polyoxypropylene polyols. Furthermore, the relative amounts of the precursors that have to be combined to produce a specific polyurethane product are usually tailored to the type of product and to the production process. The following starting formulations provide a guide for 2-pound density spray insulation foams. Polyurethane catalySt Product Guide 03/15 AMINO ACID Product Name Type Rigid Foams Typical Properties Bunstock Product Description/Benefits PIR Pour-in-place Spray Viscosity, (cps) at 25° C Water, % Calculated Hydroxyl No. Polyurethane is an oil-based resin finish that is commonly applied to wood flooring and furniture. Dec 27, 2018 · Polyurethane varnish is one of the best finishes for a countertop -- it's durable and, when applied properly, can be just as subtle as lacquer. Polyurethane formulations cover an extremely wide range of stiffness, hardness, and densities. Besides Polyurethane foam can also be provided in open cell structure. • VOC (volatile organic compound) regulations may influence the amount of solvent used in SRC-220 formulations. High-end prepolymers for formulating structural wood adhesives  impart hydrophobicity to polyurethane formulations while retaining the traditional . Many variables must To do this, there are many factors that will need to be considered when defining the custom formulation. PolyOne is here help you meet and beat your challenges with complex material science, so your next breakthrough can rock the market. However, in this post, we focus on open cell Polyurethane foam materials. The chemistry of the polyurethane dispersion will dictate the performance properties. Engineered Elastomer Formulations Materials engineering and formula design is a key piece of Molded Dimensions, LLC's rubber and cast urethane manufacturing philosophy. We hope to help you meet the growing challenges in today’s industry through this guide, and we are eager to support you through our collaborative approach to problem The fact is actually that Polyurethane foam comes in two forms- open cell or closed cell structure, both of which differ in densities and respective applications. Alkyd emulsions based on Maxemul provide DTM paint formulations good corrosion resistance, minimal corrosion under the coating and minimal corrosion creep around the scribe after 1000h salt spray test. 20 Magnesium silicate Finntalc M15 Mondo Minerals 10. Just contact us! formulation. Polyurethane has a limited shelf life, less than a year, and once opened can go off quickly if moisture gets in. 24 High MW Polyisocyanate 100% solids Guide Formulation ED No. uk 2 A Basic Guide to Formulating Cosmetics & Toiletries What is a cosmetic? Understanding product briefs From concept to product formulation Sources of information EU cosmetic regulations The global marketplace Cost effective formulation Product stability & preservation Example formulation techniques 3. Polyurethane catalySt Product Guide Elé Corporation is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified global manufacturer of specialty and intermediate chemicals used in a wide range of industrial applications and consumer products. While highly branched PEP result in rigid PU with good heat and chemical resistance, less branched PEP give PU with good flexibility (at low temperature) and low chemical resistance. Because urethane is available in a very broad hardness range (eraser-soft to bowling-ball-hard), it allows the engineer to replace rubber, plastic and metal with the ultimate in abrasion resistance and physical properties. • Because SRC-220 is a concentrate in water, it is not This guide sets out to remove the reservations that engineers sometimes have about adhesives. ) General Plastics has focused on meeting the exacting requirements of engineers and design teams in diverse industries for over 75 years. polyurethane – wondering which one to use? Check out this guide and learn the pros and cons of each product before making up your mind! Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a unique category of plastic created when a polyaddition reaction occurs between a diisocyanate and one or more diols. In the UK, BRE has introduced a voluntary green guide to specification. Thermoplastic Polyurethane Formulation Versatility One of the main advantages when choosing TPUs is that TPUs can be tailor-made to meet the different specifications of diverse industrial applications. bag Quantity 42/pallet 42/pallet MASON MIX These solvent-based formulations are waterproof and adhere well to most substrates. ,668( $; ì -8/<. Use of aqueous polyurethane dispersions in formulations for crack sealing for OS 11 coatings. In polyurethane Solvent based Curing agent Desmodur N 3390, 90% Bayer 6. In addition I plan to discuss how to combine these polyurethane dispersions with other polymer systems SUPRASEC® 2144, 2244 and 2944 Huntsman's new product family for the formulation of structural wood adhesives page A pioneering approach to polyurethane 3 Polyurethane-based wood adhesives 4 Wood adhesives based on Huntsman's SUPRASEC® MDI 5 Product specifics – summary overview 7 Product specifics – strength build-up 9 Total Weight of MDI Required for Reaction. The following guidelines are based on Hauthaway's experience in formulating coatings. The isocyanate must have at least two functional groups and the monomer at least two alcohol groups. Paramelt provides a broad range of 1 and 2-component PU adhesives as well as solvent-bourne adhesives based on rubbers like SBS, SEBS, PIB, nitrile or natural rubber primarily for construction applications. Once the resin contacts water, a chemical reaction occurs. 24 High MW Polyisocyanate 100% solids Let's Start with the PUR Hot Melt Basics If you're a PUR hot melt connoisseur, sorry to bore you but we're going to start simply. g. mmHg (1. In the next section I offer an over-view of the case formulation approach to CBT and show how it addresses these issues. 94 Kb) is a fast grabbing, 100% solids, one-part polyurethane based moisture curing adhesive for wood bonding. formulation variables - Formulating for the technologies and equipment available - Choosing proper starting raw materials for the desired properties - Recognizing specific foam quality issues 4. Tico ® - Guide formulations Heubach GmbH • P. 26g of solid acrylic resin based on the following polyol and polyisocyanate: 56,100 / 460 = Hydroxyl Number = 122 %NCO = 42 X 100 / NCO Equivalent Weight %NCO = 42 X 100 / 183 = 23% PRODUCT GUIDE Formulation Guide page 1 INTRODUCTION Coating formulators now have the ability to modify the tactile surface properties of their products with MicroTouch. Vulcanization Conditions Compounds based on Millathane 97 are vulcanized at temperatures of 145º - 165º C, depending on the peroxide used, with typical curing times of compression molded lab sheets being The DISPUREZ range of pyrrolidone-free, waterborne polyurethane dispersions is designed to facilitate the formulation of high performance coatings for flexible films and rigid plastics contact applications associated with polyurethane formulations. Silicone-based release agents tend to react poorly with clear resins, causing cure-inhibition and other defects. 2. Check out Polyurethane from ICL Phosphate Specialty Corrosion Inhibitors and Paint & Coating Additives. If you have any  polyesters, polyethers, and acrylics for use in the formulation of polyurethane allows the design of polyurethane coating systems to meet specific end-use  SUPRASEC® 2144, 2244 and 2944. Polyurethane chemical grouts are usually injected under pressure as a liquid resin into or in the vicinity of the leak. Leather iPad covers cost $69 and are available in cream, tan, black, navy blue, and red. 1 component polyurethane adhesives moisture curing. Dynatect’s pipe guides features a urethane formulation that resists heat build-up or melting providing a consistent support surface. com 02 Varnishes have always been considered a mysterious blend of black art and science. It also seals and sticks well to masonry, wood and metals. Scratch resistance. ^Top. today's common Ausfü guide variants are the structures A and  Example formulation. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Nevertheless, there are a number of documented foam problems that were traced back to foam chemical formulations. Appearance. Aqueous Polyurethane Dispersions. Request a Formulations Guide The Formulations Guide from Dow Crop Defense offers an overview of benefits, criteria and components of frequently used agrichemical formulations. Best of all, applying polyurethane doesn't require Incorez has developed Formulation Guides for 1K and 2K PU Coatings. Polyurethane products are often called "urethanes". « Previous Thread formulation. 1. The basic polyurethane chemicals division of BASF in North America is a major supplier of aromatic isocyanates (MDI, TDI) and polyols used by manufacturers of polyurethane products for CASE applications, flexible foam, engineered wood products, rigid polyisocyanurate boards and foam insulation. , Development guidelines on speciality PU foams in aerosol cans, Internal. Polyurethane Dispersions (PUD) Selection This guide will endeavor to direct the formulator through the process of selecting polyurethane dispersions for a specific adhesive formulation and end-use requirement. I want formulation of polyurethane clear coating, matt and gloss. 0. The NEUSoft™ series from NEU Specialty Engineered Materials, LLC boasts translucent, ultra-soft polyether or polyester-based TPU blends that have good elasticity, abrasion and tear resistance. Sheep is most productive when fed a ration balanced according to their nutrient needs. Formulating Guidelines for Hauthane Polyurethane Dispersions . Flexible polyurethane formulations cover an extremely wide range of hardness, densities, and cell structures. 40 Carbon black Flammruß 101 Degussa, today Evonik 0. Innospec. ers, the latter has to be resolved from a formulation. Whether you need high-temperature tooling boards, molded parts or composite core materials, expect identical quality, uniformity, and more every time. The case formulation approach to CBT provides a framework to guide clinicians’ handling of these challenges as they strive to use ESTs. 2. PROCESSING GUIDE Plasticizer formulation selector guide Technical tip Manufacturers of coatings, caulks, and sealants are often in search of alternative plasticizers for better performance and availability or to move towards non-phthalate alternatives. Isocyanate-Free Polyurethane Technology for Automotive Refinish Applications For iso-free PU primer formulation #3, the equivalent weight of the alkyd . 1% D4 and D5. They can be used as moisture scavengers, latent curing agents or reactive diluents in a variety of applications, with specific benefits for your PU coating formulations. Polyurethane replaces wood and plastic elastomers in the manufacture of cutting sticks and die-cutting pads for use in printers, paper cutters and embossing machines. Epoxy resins are generally combined with curing agents, modifiers and other additives into formulated coatings, adhesives, compounds or   11 Dec 2012 Technical Director, Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance Technical Literature and Guidelines . of the thesis is to formulate polyurethane rigid foam from soy-based polyol, understand the mechanism behind the property deficiencies, and develop strategies to improve them. . Formulation Guide In this page, I have attempted to give a few guidelines for formulating various paints, thinners and pretreatment chemicals. Powder Coatings North  1. 6 Posts Saturday 09 March 2002 1:00:00 am. polyurethane maintenance coatings are used to protect bridges and the build-ings andstructures ofchemical plants, petroleum refineries, pulp and paper mills andother industrial facilities. This is why it's important to let the manufacturer know what your  Lea nuestras publicaciones generales, que incluyen folletos, informes anuales y otras publicaciones de productos. Box 1161 • 38679 Langelsheim • Germany • Phone +49-5326-52-0 • Fax +49-5326-52-213 • sales@heubachcolor. Sovermol® 819 Base polyol 36,6 2. High quality water based polyurethanes is considered by many homeowners & flooring professionals to be equally durable. ready-made polybutadiene-isocyanate prepolymers offered by Sartomer. Applications of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers include many PU products, such as industrial hose, pneumatic tube, high-wear resistant engineering parts and footwear components…etc. ® DMPA Polyol HA-0135 TECHNICAL BULLETIN #2 DMPA Polyol HA-0135 in Solvent Free Polyurethane Dispersions Guide Formulation Technical Data Typical Properties Appearance Clear / lightly hazy viscous liquid Its use in garments is growing: for example, in lining the cups of brassieres. 0 501 Polyurethane chemical grouts are usually injected under pressure as a liquid resin into or in the vicinity of the leak. A series of three cast polyurethane elastomers soft polyol segments, polyurethane elastomers exhibit . ARTICLES / Formulation of Polyurethane Sealant | Production of Polyurethane Putty Usage of polyurethane sealant. May 01, 2014 · The waterborne polyurethane coatings show results equal to, or better than, standard solventborne polyurethane coatings in hardness, impact resistance and solvent resistance. Properties. A Guide to TPU 4 Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a unique category of plastic created when a polyaddition reaction occurs between a diisocyanate and one or more diols. NCO/OH ration calculation. FORMULATION FINDER. On these pages we offer starting point formulations for pigment concentrates for the use in Decorative Coatings and General Industrial Coatings. 0 percent of a polyurethane formulation. 2 kg 36. B-Side Formulation: Flame Retardants. Varnishes are generally made up Guide Formulation ED No. Learn how our products can make your products better. Australian Urethane Systems optimization and assessment of these formulations, as well as dissemination of the experience . Polyurethane can be machined on standard equipment, and the tools and molds this material requires are generally inexpensive to produce. 10 Mould-releaseAgents 132 guide formulations skin care hair care new trends make up formulated with adeka nol gt-730 polyurethane-59, butylene glycol, aqua 3. 819/7 Guide Formulation 819/7 Page 1 of 1 Market Segment Resins Coating type Self leveling 2-pack polyurethane flooring compound Binder components Sovermol 819® / 1092 ® / 1058® - Polymer MDI 31% NCO-content Pos. Achieve the drying rate you WANT for your Waterborne Adhesives, Coatings & Sealants, not the one you passively undergo! Join Edward Petrie & review latest formulation strategies (additives, drying processes…) to fasten or slow down your drying rate, without using co-solvents. com The formulation is properly adjusted so that a constant quality of the foam is granted. The resulting polyurethane enters the mold (polyurethane injection molding process) through the after-mixer, which maintains the mixture’s properties while reducing its velocity to 95-100 psi. 80 Titanium dioxide Kemira 660 Kemira 7. • Formulators and applicators with knowledge of Home > Forum > Optimized formulations > NCO/OH ration calculation. Technical Data. No colour change in over-lapping areas. 65 mm thickness). polyurethane coatings and paints formulations encyclopedia e - textbooks EPOXY COATINGS & PAINTS FORMULATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA TEXTBOOKS CONSTRUCTION CHEMICALS FORMULATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA - 2 E - TEXTBOOKS A urethane elastomer coating is a formulation of elastomeric polyurethane that can be applied as a paint. Therefore, the formulator needs to know what properties are affected by certain characteristics of the dispersion. alone, millions ofgallonsa year are used because polyurethane paints and coatings are recognized as the cost-effectiveleaders in providing Guide Formulation Hair Care Scalp Scaling Ampoule (ST-2) Caring for the scalp is just as important as caring for the hair in Korea. Efka ® 4330 dispersing agent • The lines between polyurethane and polyurea are becoming blurred. 01 Anticorrosive pigment Calcium Phosphate CP Heubach 9. 01% weight uptake after being immersed in water during one day at room temperature, less than 0. I will discuss the problems associated in formulating polyurethane dispersions, how these systems can be pigmented, and crosslinked with either melamine or polyisocyanate crosslinker and how to catalyze these formulations. Polyurethane Adhesives and Sealants Based on Hydrophobic Polyols Adam Colson Amber Stephenson Nita Xu Wenwen Li Bindu Krishnan The Dow Chemical Company 2301 N. Reduced production costs, improved wear and abrasion resistance, and noise abatement makes polyurethane the wise choice in chain-drive design for small business machines. Starting Point Polyester Formulations. The MARISEAL 400 is a pigmented, colorfast, UV-stable, permanent elastic, one-component aliphatic polyurethane coating, used as a top-coat over exposed polyurethane waterproofing coatings. NEUSoft™ Thermoplastic Polyurethanes. 3 Typical Formulations 78 6. By. Polyols  Dipropylene Glycol ADEKA. 2 kg Package Size 80 lb. When trying to maximize moisture resistance in their structural epoxy and polyurethane adhesives, formulators often rely on trial-and-error, or on old materials they are used to work with. formulations. COLOR SELECTION Flexible Polyurethane Methyl Methacrylate (PUMMA) Product #6890 is supplied clear (slight haze). The guidelines are by no means exhaustive or meant to exclude other raw material or processing alternatives. Dallas, TX: The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. These materials include: Increase uptime and service life with Dynatect’s superior wear components and maximize smooth gliding of pipes while minimizing shake and rattle. Guide Formulation Increased coating hardness DMPA® Polyol HA-0135LV2 is an acid functional liquid polyol based on DMPA used to formulate fast reacting, NMP free pre-polymers. The term “rigid polyurethane foam” comprises two polymer types: Polyisocyanurate formulations, and polyurethane formulas. If you have any questions or need support, please contact us via "Ask our experts". Brazosport Blvd Freeport, TX 77541 ABSTRACT Thermosetting polyurethane polymers are staples of adhesive and sealant formulations used in a variety of industrial Starting Point Formulations. Jun 28, 2013 · Polyurethanes are plasticizer-free, segmented polymers comprising alternating soft and hard segments. 3. It is highly compatible with plastic and rubber. 80 Calcium carbonate Millicarb Omya 9. 6 Apr 2016 Recent changes in legislation have forced one-component foam producers to drop the amount of free monomeric isocyanate in their  typically 0. that applicable safe handling guidelines are followed. Air Products is a global leader in Polyurethane Additives, offering the broadest A polyurethane (PU) is a polycondensation reaction product of an isocyanate with a monomer. Start time, s, 16. BEETAFIN® - aqueous polymer dispersions form films by a coalescence process. High abrasion resistance. It also contains less than 0. PRODUCT GUIDE 31 PRODUCT GUIDE — LOXON™ POLYURETHANE SEALANTS Loxon™ Polyurethane Sealants provide a complete line of concrete and masonry coatings to support all the needs of this growing market. Uses: Adheres roofing tile to roofing substrate. What is polyurethane foam used for? The major markets for flexible polyurethane are as cushioning materials in furniture, bedding, carpet underlay, automotive and packaging Guide Formulation ED No. Polyurethane formulations for floors are the hardest ones available, whether oil- or water-based. Robnor ResinLab is a supplier of epoxy and polyurethane resin systems including This partnership has enhanced our expertise in resin manufacture, custom formulation and toll blending and gives us Download Product Selector Guide  28 Jun 2018 Changes in polyurethane formulations change much more than the hardness. NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ALANT FORMULATION GUIDE KALAR® Partially Cross-linked Butyl Rubber DPR® Liquid Natural Rubber ISOLENE® Liquid Synthetic Rubber KALENE® Liquid Butyl Rubber Royal Elastomers 600 Cortlandt Street, Belleville, NJ 07109 z Tel: (888) 442-7362 z Fax: (973) 751-8407 z www. * The purpose of the solvent is to act as a coalescent or film-forming agent. Your polyurethane supplier can provide you with a list of any clearances applicable to its products. High-quality acrylic co-reactants used in polyurethane topcoat formulations can significantly outperform low-cost acrylic polyurethanes. “Polyoxypropylene polyols” herein refer to polyols that are polymerized products of only propylene oxide and an initiator. This guide provides preliminary formulations for a range of low to medium modulus and elongation one-component sealants based on VORAMER MN 2314. End time, s  19 Jul 2011 properties and bonding performance of polyurethane prepolymers the formulation on the mechanical properties of pure adhe- sives, on the  To. This ensures we produce high quality, engineered product that meets and exceeds our customer's expectations. to use any product, process, equipment or formulation in conflict with any patent, and ICL makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, that the use thereof will not infringe any patent. It features a fast, high-strength formulation that requires no heating or long set-up times to cure. Total Weight of MDI Required for Reaction. Polyurethane is a unique material that offers the elasticity of rubber combined with the toughness and durability of metal. Formulation variations can also play a role, including isocyanate index. Terate® HT 5349 polyol is suitable of using either HFC-245fa or   The main objective of this work was to study one component polyurethane foams The first study consisted in verifying if the formulations with F134a, a Schrijver, A. waterborne epoxy curing agents and waterborne polyurethane dispersions. woodruff@creative-developments. Choosing the Right Masterflex® Tubing Formulation (continued) Pump tubing formulation Advantages Application suitability† Meets classifications Gas permeability Sterilization Acids Alkalies Organic solvents Pressure Vacuum Viscous fluids Sterile fluids PharMed® BPT Great for tissue and cell work—nontoxic and nonhemolytic. In short, there are several different types of TPU, and the differences are achieved when various chemicals are added to the basic formulation (i. bulk bags Item No. add catalytic activity. 2 A GUIDE TO HIGH PERFORMANCE POLYURETHANE UPHOLSTERY FABRICS 3 Polyurethane, commonly referred to as ‘PU’, is a polymer that is considered to be a highly resilient, flexible and durable material. Rigid Polyurethane Foam — Siltech’s SILSTAB ® silicone surfactants are used to stabilize rigid polyurethane foam systems. For more than 50 years, our Niax* brand has enabled the efficient and consistent production of a wide array of foam products. This is because PUR hot melts have some amazing characteristics that appeal to a huge set of users. Brazosport Blvd Freeport, TX 77541 ABSTRACT Thermosetting polyurethane polymers are staples of adhesive and sealant formulations used in a variety of industrial polyurethane precursors. Guide to the Polyurethane Foam www. Polyurethane dispersions made from these pre-polymers result in hard coatings with quick dry times. Natrlquest E30. 0% as delivered on total formulation without any negative impact on curtain stability. This rinse-off treatment is designed to be massaged into the hair and scalp. Introduction to Polyurethane Composites. Guide Formulation for Floor and Balcony PU Coatings Brochure | Supplied by Incorez Incozol EH oxazolidine is the ideal additive for the formulation of 1K aliphatic PU waterproofing hard coatings for Floor & balcony applications. 4 Posts Economic solutions for solventborne tinting systems Manfred Jorna BASF, Dispersions & Pigments Division, Formulation Additives . This article describes automotive refinish applications for a novel ambient-cure, two-component isocyanate- free polyurethane coating technology based on the reaction of polycarbamates with polyaldehydes. To accomplish this goal, we maintain an on-site Chemist and laboratory. When polyurethane sealant dries, it produces a very tough elastic-type seal. in the formulation of polyurethane foam). 4 and molecular weight of 690 g/mol was chosen as the control polyol. Blue Ox sheets are specifically formulated for the agriculture industry and are perfect for areas where fine particle abrasion is a concern. Consult the polyurethane guide in the info center. write a paper, stimulate a debate, guide research, or develop skills). 27 Sep 2018 For example, the statistical evaluation of the effect of the formulation used in Defonseka C. Polyurethane is difficult to clean off hands, (gloves are highly recommended). Interested in formulation guide line. It will provide an explanation of the functions of DE in coatings, a comparison of DE to other minerals, and some sample formulations that may serve as starting points for product development and testing. 005 g/m2. properties. It is actually the base ingredient for both satin and semigloss finishes, as well as many others. Technical parameters at 20 °C. May 08, 2014 · john. For each adhesive the valid information is contained in the technical data sheet do it by the manufacturers, due that the formulation of the adhesive changes its When formulated as ambient-cured systems, traditional two-component polyurethanes typically must balance cure speed for pot life. Formulation of polyurethane coatings. 6 thickener, emulsion Request a Formulations Guide The Formulations Guide from Dow Crop Defense offers an overview of benefits, criteria and components of frequently used agrichemical formulations. Guide Formulation. Starting Formulations. polyurethane formulation guide

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